By World Health Organization
This publication provides revised guide values for the 4 most typical air toxins - particulate subject, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - in line with a contemporary evaluation of the amassed clinical proof. the reason for collection of every one instruction worth is supported via a synthesis of knowledge rising from study at the well-being results of every pollutant. for that reason, those guidance now additionally follow globally. they are often learn together with Air caliber directions for Europe, 2d variation, that is nonetheless the authority on instruction values for all different air toxins.
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Additional info for Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005
5 and smaller fractions of PM are measured to a much lesser extent than PM10 in Europe. 82 (12). 5 annual averages at traffic sites (typical range 20–30 μg/m3). 5 levels <16 μg/m3 (8). Fine particles are responsible for most visibility problems in Asia. 5 concentrations averaging just over 100 μg/m3. The monthly average concentrations varied between 61 μg/m3 and 139 μg/m3. 5 values can reach 300 μg/m3 (26). 5 concentration in winter was 12 μg/m3 (7). Ultrafine particles Ultrafine particles are usually formed by nucleation, which is the initial stage of the process by which gas becomes a particle.
Copenhagen, European Environment Agency, 2002. 13. Gurjar BR et al. Emission estimates and trends (1990–2000) for megacity Delhi and implications. Atmospheric Environment, 2004, 38:5663–5681. 14. html, accessed 12 July 2006). 15. Begum BA et al. Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at a hot spot area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 2005, 55:227–240. 30 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES 16. Urban air pollution. Washington, DC, World Bank, 2004 (South Asia Urban Air Quality Management Briefing Note No.
From Australia it has been reported that atmospheric particles resulting from seasonal wood smoke are of concern in some cities. Current efforts to educate the community on appropriate use of domestic wood heaters are likely to take a long time to show substantial benefit. The largest cities such as Sydney and Melbourne, however, reported annual average PM10 concentrations as low as 20–22 μg/m3 (22). 5 is an important indicator of risk to health from particulate pollution, and might also be a better indicator than PM10 for anthropogenic suspended particles in many areas.