By Marc A. Williams
Pt. 1. floor amendment innovations -- pt. 2. Analytical options and functions
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Pt. 1. floor amendment thoughts -- pt. 2. Analytical options and purposes
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Additional info for Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity
1981). Metchnikoff in Messina: a century of studies on phagocytosis. N Engl J Med 304: 1178–80. 15 Tauber AI. (1992). The birth of immunology. III. The fate of the phagocytosis theory.
Since DC are responsive to endogenous proteins and other ligands like DNA or RNA released from damaged or necrotic cells, it is thus not the infectious non-self or foreign invader that often is sensed and activates DC, but the “danger” signal, hence the gradual acceptance and growing interest in the concept of the “danger hypothesis”. (138–142) Prior work by others has identified Hsp60 and Hsp70 as powerful endogenous ligands and activators of DC. (143–145) On exposure to various PM species, we have shown dependence on both the TLR4 and TLR2 pathways of cellular activation and the adaptor protein MyD88 using targeted gene knockout mouse models.
As such, DC reside in this tissue (as well as other mucosal immune sites) in an immature state of “primed” functional activation. Dendritic cells in this state of readiness are extremely efficient at taking up exogenous soluble and particulate materials by endocytic, phagocytic and macropinocytic uptake mechanisms. Additionally, since DC display an evolutionary conserved repertoire of microbial pattern-recognition receptors termed toll-like receptors (TLRs) on their cell surface as well as TLRs that are found in the cytoplasm and associated with early and late endosomal compartments, they are armed with an impressive array of information-management and rapid-response pathways.