Download An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Blackwell Textbooks in by Ronald Wardhaugh PDF

By Ronald Wardhaugh

This absolutely revised textbook is a brand new variation of Ronald Wardhaugh’s well known and obtainable An creation to Sociolinguistics.

* presents an available, accomplished creation to sociolinguistics that displays new advancements within the field.
* totally revised, with one hundred thirty new and up to date references to convey the booklet thoroughly up-to-date.
* comprises recommended readings, dialogue sections, and workouts.
* positive aspects elevated emphasis on problems with id, team spirit, and gear
* Discusses issues akin to language dialects, pidgins and creoles, codes, bilingualism, speech groups, version, phrases and tradition, ethnographies, team spirit and politeness, speak and motion, gender, drawback, and making plans.
* Designed for introductory and post-introductory scholars, and excellent for classes together with advent to sociolinguistics, facets of sociolinguistics, and language and society.

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Example text

However, Danes claim to comprehend Norwegians much better than Norwegians claim to comprehend Danes. The poorest mutual comprehension is between Danes and Swedes and the best is between Norwegians and Swedes. These differences in mutual intelligibility appear to reflect power relationships: Denmark long dominated Norway, and Sweden is today the most influential country in the region and Denmark the least powerful. A somewhat similar situation exists in the relationship of Thai and Lao. The Laos understand spoken Thai and hear Thai constantly on radio and television.

We can also periodically observe deliberate attempts to throw off an influence perceived to be alien: for example, Atatürk’s largely successful attempt to reduce the Arabic influence on Turkish, and periodic attempts to ‘purify’ languages such as French and German of borrowings from English. While in the case of Hebrew, a language used only in a very restricted way for religious observances was successfully expanded for everyday use, we should note that a similar attempt to revitalize Gaelic in Ireland has been almost a complete failure.

If we turn our attention to China, we will find that speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin will tell you that they use the same language. However, if one speaker knows only Cantonese and the other only Mandarin, they will not be able to converse with each other: they actually speak different languages, certainly as different as German and Dutch and even Portuguese and Italian. If the speakers are literate, however, they will be able to communicate with each other through a shared writing system. They will almost certainly insist that they speak different dialects of Chinese, not different languages, for to the Chinese a shared writing system and a strong tradition of political, social, and cultural unity form essential parts of their definition of language.

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