By Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, H. Lyn Miles
Humans normally imagine that animals are psychologically like themselves (anthropomorphism), and describe what animals do in narratives (anecdotes) that aid those mental interpretations. this is often the 1st ebook to guage the importance and value of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for knowing animals. varied views are awarded in considerate, serious essays by means of historians, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists, behaviorists, biologists, primatologists, and ethologists. the character of anthropomorphism and anecdotal research is tested; social, cultural, and ancient attitudes towards them are offered; and clinical attitudes are appraised. Authors offer interesting in-depth descriptions and analyses of numerous species of animals, together with octopi, nice apes, monkeys, canine, sea lions, and, after all, humans. matters approximately, and suggestions for, reviews of numerous mental features of animals are mentioned, together with psychological nation attribution, intentionality, cognition, realization, self-consciousness, and language.
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Extra resources for Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals
Lakoff & Johnson, 1980), the metaphorical use of terms or concepts must presuppose the literal use or meaning. Decisions are made, therefore, consciously or unconsciously by the scientist, about the appropriateness of terms that are normally used to describe human behavior (the literal meaning) when applied to animal behavior (and claimed to be metaphorical). Thus, however pervasive metaphor is held to be in either ordinary or scientific discourse, the speaker's beliefs about wherein lies the difference between human and nonhu- < previous page page_23 If you like this book, buy it!
A couple of accounts about the disinterested charity shown by generous middle-class cats to poor stranger cats outside the kitchen door (Romanes, 1883, pp. 344-345) are as affecting (although considerably briefer) as Dickens's (1850/1980, 1853/1964) tales of Agnes Wickfield's or Esther Summerson's good works. By the end of his long life, Darwin had given up on serious literature and preferred popular novels with lovable heroines and happy endings; his own and Romanes's illustrations of mental evolution could provide animal counterparts for some of them.
These differences have resulted in different conceptions of what is serious or unscientific anthropomorphism between the cultures. The second half of the chapter raises a linguistic problem. The rather common statement that controlled or careful anthropomorphic description of animals is a metaphorical way of speaking, is not, it will be argued, true. To begin with, as Harris (1984) pointed out, while a statement such as "The ship of state foundered" is a metaphor, the statement "Animal A threatened animal B" is not.